The importance of lowering total and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) in the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is so firmly established that it has,in only a short time, become part of everyday practice for all primary care health professionals.Lipids,of course,come in multiple forms,which include fatty acids,the different forms of cholesterol and triglycerides.Most practitioners have only a sketchy idea of what triglycerides are,what they do and how important they are.Few understand the intricacies of measurement, diagnosis and interpretation,and when – and how – to manage them.The story is complex and involves difficult biochemical and metabolic concepts,so we should begin at the beginning.
Vascular surgery is an area that is constantly evolving, with new techniques being developed and existing ones improved. It is used to remove atheroma from arteries – including cardiac and carotid arteries and to treat varicose veins. In this article, we review the range of different types of vascular surgery that patients may undergo. What do they involve and when are they used?