There are several different drug types used in the management of hypertension. This back to basics provides a useful summary of the different antihypertensive drug classes and how they act to regulate blood pressure.
Back to Basics: Respiratory drugs
Case study: Nurse COPD assessment
This case describes a 56-year old male with a productive cough and worsening breathlessness who presented to a practice nurse. This case study was part of a Health Assessment module at the University of Surrey. The case study was supervised by a GP.
Sponsored feature: Identification of malnutrition in COPD patients
People with COPD should be reviewed at least annually according to the Quality and Outcomes Framework. However, there is little mention of the importance of assessing nutritional status and no ‘QOF’ points for doing so. This article describes the assessment and management of COPD patients with a risk of malnutrition.
Promoting best practice in COPD management
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) has a major impact on the health and quality of life of patients and there is often co-morbidity with cardiovascular disease. Well planned and structured training for the primary care team could have a major impact on outcomes.
Gender and quality of life in COPD: A systematic review
Morbidity and mortality for women with COPD is increasing. This systematic review uncovers how women seem to experience COPD differently to men, and helps health care professionals to provide an individualised approach to caring for these patients.
Heart failure: managing breathlessness and oedema
Heart failure is characterised by fatigue, breathlessness and retention of fluid. The update of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence chronic heart failure guidelines has simplified its management by using a stepped approach to investigation and treatment. In this article, we focus on the practical aspects of managing the two main symptoms associated with heart failure – oedema and breathlessness.
COPD: Serious, chronic and becoming more common in women
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a largely preventable, slowly progressive, inflammatory disease. Rates of COPD are rising faster in women than in men, yet women are less likely to be diagnosed. There is currently no cure, but best-practice management outlined in recently updated NICE guidelines can help to improve patients’ symptoms and quality of life.
Breathing new life into managing patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cardiovascular disease
Chronic clinical conditions have traditionally been regarded as individual disease categories within individual patients, although there is often considerable overlap across clinical systems. However, for those managing these patients the presence of various co-morbidities is all-too apparent. It may be time to consider a new approach to management of these patients.
Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is nearly double the rate in the general population without COPD. And for those with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and COPD, heart failure is the most common cause of hospitalisation.
Managing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cardiovascular disease together
Chronic clinical conditions have traditionally been regarded as individual disease categories within individual patients, although there is often considerable overlap across clinical systems. The monitoring of patients with long-term conditions has historically centred around a traditional model of a nurse-led clinic, utilising an appropriate level of skill mix. The disease categories and associated clinical indicators of the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) have encouraged this approach, but for those managing these patients the presence of various co-morbidities is all too apparent
Editorial: Winter, respiratory infections and COPD
What a winter we have had! Many children have seen heavy snow fall for the
first time and London was completely immobilised due to the weather. At the
same time our hospitals have been battling to cope with patients suffering with
respiratory infections and exacerbations of their COPD. GP practices have been
stretched to the limit to cope with the additional burden of coughs and colds.
Building capacity is a real problem for everyone working in the health service and
patients’ demands and expectations continue to grow.
What’s new in the BTS guidelines for emergency oxygen use in adult patients?
This brief article summarises some of the key points in the recent oxygen guideline
that are of particular relevance to health professionals working in primary care.
It includes the appropriate monitoring of patients with asthma and COPD as well as
the correct equipment required. For full information on the guideline refer to
www.brit-thoracic.org.uk – emergency oxygen guidelines.
Spirometers in primary care: uses and limitations
Modern medical practice emphasises the use of objective measurements and
evidence. Nobody would diagnose hypertension without measuring the blood
pressure, or manage diabetes without measuring blood sugar and glycated
haemoglobin. Yet it is only relatively recently that any lung function
measurements to support diagnosis and guide management of respiratory disease were
undertaken in primary care.