The NICE 2015 guidelines on the diagnosis and management of menopause provides useful evidence-based guidance on the menopause, but it is unclear if many GPs are able to confidently prescribe appropriate hormone replacement therapy (HRT). This brief article gives an overview of the importance of HRT and aims to help GPs to manage their patients experiencing menopause.
This case describes a 56-year old male with a productive cough and worsening breathlessness who presented to a practice nurse. This case study was part of a Health Assessment module at the University of Surrey. The case study was supervised by a GP.
Foot ulceration in people with diabetes is an increasing problem which is costly to the NHS financially and to patients in terms of quality of life. Management is complex and involves a team approach to ensure the best results for patients.
As many as 16 million people in the UK are estimated to have hypertension, and around 7 million of these are undiagnosed. Of those diagnosed in England, one third are not receiving optimum management.
Obesity is estimated to be responsible for more than 30,000 deaths each year, reducing lifespan by an average of nine years. The links between obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease are well documented, but overweight and obesity also causes 6% of cancers in the UK. These figures have resulted in warnings that obesity is the new smoking when it comes to risks to health and longevity. So the problem is clear. The challenge is to put into action what works.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Elevated blood pressure (BP) is the main global risk factor for premature morbidity and mortality, and the prevalence of hypertensive heart disease is not declining over time. Improved control of high BP is, therefore, fundamental to further prevention of CVD, and adoption of treatment guidelines can have a positive impact on BP-related outcomes.
A local GP practice in Milton Keynes has designed a valuable tool to triage patients presenting with chest pain and to help them avoid unnecessary emergency hospital admissions. The locality has no dedicated unit, so patients require either emergency hospital admission, a referral to Rapid Access Chest Pain Clinic (RACP), cardiology outpatient clinic (OPD), or management in primary care.
There appears to be an association between migraine and cardiovascular disease and especially ischaemic stroke. How real is the absolute risk, what may be the cause, and what, if anything should we tell our patients?
Given that cardiovascular disease (CVD) is responsible for a quarter of all deaths in the UK and is the largest cause of premature mortality in deprived areas, the NHS Long Term Plan recognises that CVD is the single biggest area where the NHS can save lives over the next 10 years.
In the 70 years since the NHS was founded there have indeed been remarkable successes in reducing mortality from common conditions, an important example being deaths due to heart and circulatory disease. Yet the statistics show that there is more to be done to prevent the toll of premature death and years of disability associated with CVD. For this reason, we welcome the continuing focus on CVD prevention as set out in this publication, produced with the support of PHE and NHS England.
Over the last few decades, there has been a great focus on reducing premature deaths due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although this is true, CVD still remains a significant cause of disability and death in the United Kingdom. With nearly 7 million people are living with CVD in England, and a quarter of deaths each […]
The updated Chronic Heart Failure guideline from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence was published in September. This article covers the key recommendations relevant to primary care.