Stable angina is very common. Just under two million people in the UK – over one million men and 840,000 women – have, or have had, angina. In this article we review how new-onset stable angina is assessed, including an update on new investigations, and the latest treatment options including drugs and interventions, based on the most up-to-date guidelines and current practice.
Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) include common and high-risk conditions such as unstable angina, which can be difficult to diagnose, particularly in women, the elderly and diabetics. Early identification and appropriate management can significantly reduce the risk of death, morbidity and subsequent hospital admissions. This article aims to clarify what happens in ACS, how they present and how they should be managed.
Unstable angina describes a syndrome that is intermediate between stable angina and myocardial infarction: an accelerating or ‘crescendo’ pattern of chest pain that lasts longer than stable angina, occurs with less exertion or at rest, or is less responsive to medication. Unstable angina – like myocardial infarction – is an acute coronary syndrome (ACS), in contrast to stable angina, which is a chronic condition. It affects approximately six out of every 10,000 people. In this article, we review what causes unstable angina and how it should be diagnosed and treated.
Angina is a common problem in primary care, affecting around one in every six patients aged 65 years and over. It ispredominantly chest pain due to transient myocardial ischaemia caused by coronary artery disease. Episodes of angina are typically caused by exertion or emotion, and are relieved by rest. Treatment with drugs and/or surgery that improves blood flow to the heart and lifestyle changes can significantly improve patients’ quality of life and survival.