Heart failure (HF) is a devastating clinical syndrome characterised by a constellation of symptoms and signs in the presence of reduced cardiac function. Comorbidity is almost inherent as HF is often the culmination of chronic disease processes such as ischaemic heart disease, hypertension and valve disease and its treatment may precipitate comorbidities such as gout, erectile dysfunction (ED) and acute kidney injury (AKI).
Ischaemic or coronary heart disease is the single leading cause of death in any Western population but more critically is one of the leading causes of premature deaths (i.e. deaths 75 years) in both men and women. There are numerous risk factors for ischaemic heart disease and understanding these and other comorbidities is critical to achieving optimal outcomes.
Heart valve disease is an often neglected chronic condition that is found incidentally through investigation of other conditions, such as echocardiography of a patient with suspected heart failure. However, with the ageing population the prevalence of valve disease is likely to explode over the coming decades.